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More NewsTwenty years of US military presence in Afghanistan : War in Afghanistan...

Twenty years of US military presence in Afghanistan : War in Afghanistan (2001–2021)Was it worth it?

image copy right : Military Situation 
in Afghanistan Civil War (2001–2011) between the Taliban (Red) and the Northern Alliance (Blue) Before 
US Attack

The war in Afghanistan was a conflict that was fought in Afghanistan from 2001 to 2021 .  The war began with an attack by the United States and its allies,  following the 9/11 terrorist attacks , which toppled the Taliban-held Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan and deprived al – Qaeda of a safe haven.  The fighting was mostly between the Taliban , which opposed NATO , and the Afghan armed forces . The Taliban came to power 19 years and eight months after the defeat of the Afghan armed forces after the withdrawal of most NATO forces. This is the longest war in American history, almost five months ahead of the Vietnam War (1975–1955).

A coalition of more than 40 countries (including all NATO members) formed a security mission called the International Security Assistance Force ( ISAF ) after the initial objectives were achieved (replaced by the Resolute Support Mission in 2014). Some of those members were involved in military combat with the Afghan government.  This war was mostly between the Taliban  and the Afghan Armed Forces and its allied forces; The majority of ISAF / Aras soldiers and personnel are from the United States Armed Forces .  The United States codenamed the war ” Operation Long-Term Liberation .”(2014–2001) and Operation Freedom Watch (2021–2015). 

Following the 9/11 attacks, US President George W. Bush warned the Taliban to hand over the al- Qaeda terrorist group from Afghanistan to the United States. Following the Taliban’s refusal to accept the US request for an order to invade Afghanistan on October 7, 2001, officially known as Operation Long-Term Liberation .Operation Enduring Freedom) Was issued. Britain began its independent military operations in 2002. The main goal of this war was to fight and eliminate al- Qaeda , the Taliban and its supporters. About a month later, the Taliban regime fell and came to power with the Bonn Hamid Karzai Conference, and was elected President of Afghanistan in the presidential election . In 2003, the Taliban launched an insurgency against the new Afghan government.  Taliban asymmetric warfare with guerrilla attacks and ambushes in the suburbs, suicide attacks Coalition forces have been reported killed against urban targets in retaliation for their comrades.  The Taliban used the Afghan government’s weaknesses to exert influence in rural areas in southern and eastern Afghanistan. The conflict escalated from 2007 to 2009.  ISAF “cleansed and occupied” the villages as it expanded its forces for counter-insurgency operations . The number of troops began to increase in 2009, and by 2011 had risen to 140,000 foreign troops under the command of ISAF and the United States operating in Afghanistan. 

Following the assassination of Osama bin Laden in 2011 (the main cause of the war ), NATO leaders began a strategy of withdrawing their forces. On December 28, 2014, NATO formally ended ISAF combat operations in Afghanistan and formally transferred full security responsibility to the Government of Afghanistan. 

Coalition forces, unable to eradicate the Taliban militarily, turned to diplomacy to end the conflict. These efforts culminated on February 29, 2020, when the United States and the Taliban signed a conditional peace agreement in Doha  under which US forces would withdraw from Afghanistan within 14 months, and the Taliban pledged to fulfill the terms of the agreement. “No other member, individual or group, including al-Qaeda, will be allowed to use Afghan territory to threaten the security of the United States and its allies .”  However, al-Qaeda-linked insurgents in the Indian subcontinent and ISIS-Khorasan continued to operate in parts of the country. The Afghan government was not a party to the deal and rejected its terms regarding the release of prisoners.  After becoming president, Joe Biden moved his departure date from May 1, 2021, to September 11 of that year, and then to August 31.  The Taliban rejected this change of time and, after the initial deadline expired, launched a large-scale offensive in which most of Afghanistan, and finally Kabul, on August 15, 2021, was withdrawn. On the same day, Afghan President Ashraf Ghani fled the country and the Taliban declared victory and the end of the war.  On August 16, Biden confirmed Taliban control, and on August 30, the last US military aircraft left Afghanistan. And ended 20 years of Western military presence in the country. 

According to the Brown University War Costs Project , the war has killed 176,000 people in Afghanistan. 46,319 civilians, 69,095 military and police, and at least 52,893 Taliban fighters.  The war also cost the United States an astronomical sum of $ 2.26 trillion.

image copy right : From Bottom and Clockwise: US 
Air Force fighter 
jet 
crashes Cave in eastern Afghanistan; 
US troops fight Taliban in 
Kunar province ; 
ANA soldier 
examining a 
Humvee ; 
Afghan and US troops in the snow in 
Logar province ; 
Supplying victorious Taliban forces in 
Kabul ; 
Afghan soldier surveys a valley in 
Parwan province; 
British troops prepare to board a Chinook during 
Operation Prince Tazeh

The legitimacy of war

The Charter of the United Nations, adopted by the United States and other allied countries, states that all members of the United Nations must make international statements for peaceful purposes, and that no member has the right to use military force other than self- defense . The United States Constitution states that international treaties, such as the Charter of the United Nations, are ratified by all nations, including the United States, and are part of the supreme law of the United States. The United Nations Security Council has never authorized military action against Afghanistan and its invasion of Afghanistan ( Operation Enduring Freedom ). 

However, in defense of the legitimacy of the war, the United States has stated that permission for war by the UN Security Council is not required because it is a personal defense under Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, and it is not an aggression. There have also been criticisms that invading Afghanistan and its aggression under Article 51 is by no means legal, and justifying the 9/11 attacks because it was not an “armed attack” by a state. Rather, the terrorist attack by the groups was unacceptable. 

In this case, too, the George W. Bush administration never sought to issue a statement on the cause of the war,  denouncing the Taliban administration as a terrorist sponsor and denouncing human rights abuses . On December 20, 2001, the United Nations Security Council authorized the United States to establish an International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) as ISAF is required to consider all possible measures and assist the Afghan interim government.  Commands ISAF was later transferred to NATO on 11 August 2003 . 

Civil Wars 1992–96 (Kabul Wars)

 Afghanistan Civil War (1996–1992)

After the Soviet Union withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989, the communist government of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan fell to the Afghan Mujahideen in 1992. After that, various struggles among the Mojahedin to seize power from each other led to wars between them that lasted for years.

Civil Wars 1996–2001 (Taliban)

Afghanistan Civil War (1996–2001)

In 1996, the Taliban , the Islamic Movement formed in 1994, captured the city of Kabul and took control of more than 90% of the country, occupying a small area in the northeast for the Mujahideen to end the civil war between the Mujahideen and start a government. It was new for Afghanistan by the Taliban.
That same year, however, the international community, including the United States, stated that the Taliban was a very strong force in gaining control of the war-torn country.  Their excesses in Islamic law and non-negotiation with their enemies soon violated this statement. In 1996, Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaeda group entered Afghanistan and used it as a base of operations. Despite the Taliban, al-Qaeda was able to coordinate with Afghanistan for military purposes, training its troops, buying and selling weapons,Use jihadists and plots for their new terrorist plots.  Prior to 9/11, between 10,000 and 20,000 people received military training in al-Qaeda camps. 

The August 1998 bombing of the US embassy was attributed to bin Laden by President Bill Clinton , who also ordered a missile strike on al-Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan. At the same time, the United States demanded that the Taliban extradite bin Laden in 1999, but the Taliban refused.

The CIA operated in Afghanistan in the 1990s to capture or kill bin Laden. The team carried out several operations but never received an assassination order from the president. Of course, these missions led to excellent relations that accelerated US entry into Afghanistan in 2001.

The attacks of September 11, 2001

Main article: 9/11 attacks

The 9/11 attacks are the main reason for the start of the war in Afghanistan. The plan was formally approved by bin Laden in 1999, and he himself selected two hijackers and gave them special training at the Aynak Copper Camp .Mes Aynak) had been given. Later that year, four other hijackers visited bin Laden in Kandahar City, where they also received training. Another hijacker went to Camp Al-Farooq in 2000 and joined the crowd. Thirteen people were selected by bin Laden for the 2001 hijacking and were training from 2000 to 2001. In July 2001, all 13 people entered the United States.
The 9/11 attacks killed about 3,000 civilians, including hijackers. Another plane crashed while its crew was trying to regain control. Less than a week after the incident, then-US President George W. Bush ‘s Osama bin LadenThe person in charge identified this as the main suspect. Bin Laden is in Afghanistan at the same time, so on September 20, 2001, at a conference between the US Congress, President Bush, at the discretion of Congress, identified five final points for the Taliban in Afghanistan: 

  1. All al-Qaeda leaders to be extradited to the United States.
  2. Release all foreign prisoners held by the Taliban and surrender to the United States.
  3. Close all their terrorist camps.
  4. All terrorists and their supporters should be introduced and handed over to the authorities.
  5. Give the United States full access to and investigation of terrorist camps.

“They have to hand over the terrorists to us, or they will share in their fate,” said George W. Bush.  Nothing specific was attached to the threat, except for a statement about the war: “Our war on terror begins with al-Qaeda, but it does not end there.” Also, none of the 19 men involved in the attacks were Afghans (15 men from Saudi Arabia , 2 men from the United Arab Emirates , and two men from Egypt and Lebanon .  None of them were Afghan nationals at the time (more). They lived in Hamburg . None of them were educated in aviation schools in Afghanistan (trained in the United States). At the same time, the Afghan government stated through its embassy in Pakistan that the United States had not provided any evidence of bin Laden’s involvement in the 9/11 attacks, and that the government itself had no such documents. The Afghan government also announced that bin Laden had been a guest in his country, saying that under Taliban and Pashtun law, guests must always be hospitable and entitled to asylum . The Taliban have three times offered to try Osama bin Laden to the US government over 9/11, but all three have been rejected by the United States.

  • On October 4, 2001, the Taliban secretly planned to take bin Laden to Pakistan and try him in a 9/11 international trial.
  • On October 7, 2001, the Taliban offered to try bin Laden on Afghan soil in an Islamic trial, which was immediately rejected by US officials the same day. The United States and Britain have launched attacks on Taliban and al-Qaeda camps. 
  • On October 14, 2001, the Taliban made another offer to the United States to try and extradite bin Laden on the territory of a third country (other than Afghanistan and the United States) on the condition that they only provide sufficient evidence that bin Laden was involved. Present at 9/11. “There is no need to discuss guilt or innocence, we all know he is a sinner,” said George W. Bush.

2001: Initial attack

image copy right
Hamid Karzai with 
CIA 
militants early in their 
arrival in 2001

 to cut off support for al-Qaeda. Teams from the Special Activities Division, the CIA , were the first American troops to enter Afghanistan to fight. They later merged with the Special Forces (US Army ), also known as the “Green Berets”, the 5th Special Forces Group and other military units from the US Special Operations Command .  These forces worked mostly with Afghan forces opposed to the Taliban (mostly the Northern Alliance). Britain and Australia later deployed special forces to support US and Afghan forces in Afghanistan, which was supported by many countries.

On October 7, 2001, airstrikes began in Kabul , Jalalabad , and the Kandahar International Airport in Kandahar , the main stronghold of Taliban leader Mullah Omar . Cyanan Network broadcast a unique performance of the Kabul bombing to the American media at 5:08 a.m. on October 7, 2001.

At 5:00 p.m. , President Bush confirmed the attacks on US National Television, pointing to British Prime Minister Tony Blair . Bush said the Taliban’s military and terrorist training centers would be targeted, as well as food, medicine and basic necessities for Afghan women, men and children. A pre-recorded video of Osama bin Laden was released before the attacks began, condemning the attacks on Afghanistan. Al- Jazeera Arabic News Network reported that they had received the videos shortly before the attacks began.

air attacks

The bombers were led from a very high altitude by the United States because of their withdrawal from the Taliban’s anti-aircraft facilities. The initial attacks covered areas in the cities of Kabul, Jalalabad and Kandahar. Over the course of several days, most of the Taliban’s military bases were severely damaged and their anti-aircraft facilities completely destroyed. The struggle focused more on command, control, and intelligence goals, which greatly weakened the Taliban’s use of information. Two weeks after the attacks, Mojahedin forces called on the United States to focus more on the front lines. Meanwhile, large numbers of mostly Taliban supporters, mostly Pashtuns , entered the country and strengthened the Taliban against the United States.

The next phase of the attacks began with the use of F-18 Hornet bombers , which hit Taliban vehicles directly and with precision aiming, while other attacks attacked Taliban defenses with cluster attacks. For the first time in years, the commanders of the Allied Forces of the North (Mojahedin) were able to see the remarkable results from the front lines of the war that they had been waiting for years.

In early November, Taliban front lines were bombed by C-130 aircraft and BLU-82 bombs. Taliban fighters had no old experience of fighting the United States, so much so that they sometimes stood openly in the mountains, and special forces could easily identify them, inform the nearest air support, and bomb the area. On November 2, the Taliban front lines were completely destroyed, and for the first time, an attack by northern Allied forces on Kabul seemed entirely possible.

Foreign forces from al-Qaeda had taken control of the cities from the Taliban, saying the Taliban were unable to do so. Meanwhile, the Mojahedin, along with their counterparts in the CIA / Special Forces, plotted their future attacks. Mujahideen forces attacked Mazar-e-Sharif , closing Taliban supply lines to them and allowing the import of supplies from northern countries into the country, which was later accompanied by an attack on Kabul.

Most targeted areas

During the early months of the war, US forces had very little ground access, with most air strikes. The plan was for the Special Forces, along with experienced and senior CIA officers, to act as a liaison between the United States and Afghan anti-Taliban forces.

The Torabora Mountains are located in central Afghanistan, near Kabul, near the Pakistani border. US intelligence believed that the Taliban and al-Qaeda had very strong caves with excellent facilities and underground reservoirs. These areas were therefore heavily bombarded by B-52 bombers .

Little by little, American forces and the Mojahedin began to disagree on goals. While the United States was searching for Osama bin Laden, Mujahideen forces pressured them to attack and support the Taliban, ending the Taliban and seizing control of the country.

The fall of the Taliban

image copy right L Soldier of the 91st Cavalry Regiment (Airborne) is creating space for a helicopter to land in Kunar province .

After about a month of war, the Taliban regime fell and came to power with the Bon Hamid Karzai Conference, and was elected President of Afghanistan in the presidential election.

During the 2001 uprising in Herat , the IRGC’s Quds Force assisted US forces in conquering Herat and overthrowing the Taliban regime in the city. The Iranian forces were commanded by Iranian General Rahim Safavi . CIA agents , along with operations control forces, directly monitored the operation in Tehran. 

According to military experts, many of the thousands of troops stationed in Afghanistan will have a long-term presence at permanent bases. 

In January 2009, for example, hundreds of millions of dollars were spent on building permanent infrastructure for military bases in Afghanistan. Among these costs is a $ 16 billion budget for military installations at Kandahar International Airport .  Bagram Air Base is also being built and expanded by the United States, and military officials say it is expanding by buying surrounding land from locals

Statistics of casualties

Related article (s): Civilian casualties in Afghanistan war (2001–21) , Coalition casualties in Afghanistan 

More than 47,245 civilians were killed during the war in Afghanistan . In addition, between 66,000 and 69,000 people have been killed in the Afghan army and police, and more than 51,000 Taliban fighters have been killed by April 2021. In all, the war left 171,000 to 174,000 dead in Afghanistan.

However, these casualties are likely to be higher due to unaccounted for deaths due to “disease, lack of access to food, water, infrastructure, or other indirect consequences of the war.” The War Cost Project estimates that, based on an indirect-to-direct ratio of casualties in contemporary conflicts, the number of indirect casualties may be as high as 360,000.  These are the numbers of those in Pakistan fighting in northwestern Pakistan Does not include those killed.

The US-sponsored ” Long- Term Liberation Operation ” war began in 2001 with an initial air campaign , which immediately raised concerns about the loss of Afghan civilians  and sparked international protests . Increased airstrikes  and the number of Afghan civilians killed by foreign military operations have increased tensions between foreign countries and the Afghan government . In May 2007, President Hamid Karzai summoned foreign military commanders and warned them to be more aware of the consequences of civilian deaths in Afghanistan and to prevent them.  Of course, casualties during this period of the war continued to be very high during civilian casualtiesThe Soviet-Afghan war in the 1980s and the three civil wars that followed: 1989–1992 , 1992–1996 , and 1996–2001 .

Negotiations begin for US withdrawal from Afghanistan (2018)

On February 15, the New York Times reported an increase in Afghan civilian casualties by the Taliban, according to the United Nations Annual Report . This report provides a detailed assessment of Afghanistan’s 16-year war and shows that complex bombing operations deliberately targeted civilians in 2017, injuring or killing 10,453 Afghan civilians. As the United States and the Afghan government release fewer statistics, the UN report is one of the most credible indicators of the impact of the war until 2018. The report highlights the growing number of suicide bombings, which the New York Times described as a clear sign of war in 2018. The attacks, dubbed the Taliban’s response to President Trump’s new war strategy (speeding up airstrikes against the Taliban and ISIS militants), send a message that the Taliban can attack arbitrarily, even in the capital. The Taliban blamed the United States and its allies for the war in Afghanistan and denied targeting civilians. The New York Times quoted Atiqullah Amarkhal, a retired general and military analyst based in Kabul, as saying that the UN report proved the failure of the peace talks because both the Taliban and the US government are determined to win rather than negotiate. In September, the United Nations expressed concern about the increase in civilian casualties from US airstrikes in Afghanistan. The U.S. Air Force dropped about 3,000 bombs in the first six months of this year to force Taliban militants into peace talks. In a UNAMA statement, the organization reminded all parties involved in “fulfilling their obligations to protect civilians from harm.” 

On December 17, 2018, US diplomats discussed with the Taliban in the UAE the possibility of ending the war. Prior to any talks with the Kabul government, the Taliban announced the withdrawal of US-led forces and called on Washington not to oppose the establishment of an Islamic state. However, US officials insist on maintaining some forces and at least a few bases in the country. US officials described the meeting as “part of efforts by the United States and other international partners to promote inter-Afghan dialogue aimed at ending the conflict in Afghanistan.” 

2019 peace talks

On February 25, 2019, peace talks between the Taliban and the United States began in Qatar and were attended by Taliban founder Abdul Ghani Brada . US Special Envoy Zalmai Khalilzad reported that this round of talks “has been more productive than in the past” and that a draft version of the peace agreement has been agreed upon. The agreement included the withdrawal of US and international troops from Afghanistan, and the Taliban did not allow other jihadist groups to operate inside the country. The Taliban also reported that progress had been made in the negotiations.  By August, the Taliban had more control of the territory than at any time since 2001. The Washington Post The United States is reportedly close to reaching a peace agreement with the Taliban and is preparing to withdraw 5,000 troops from Afghanistan.  However, in the same month, some Taliban leaders, including Hibatullah Akhunzadeh’s brother, Amir Taliban, Hafez Ahmadullah, and other relatives,  were killed in a bomb blast at the Khair al-Madara mosque in Quetta. In September, the United States canceled negotiations. 

Resumption of negotiations in 2020

Main article: Doha Agreement (2020)

Peace talks resumed in December 2019.  This round of talks led to a partial seven-day ceasefire that began on 22 February.  On February 29, the United States and the Taliban signed a conditional peace agreement in Doha, Qatar ,  which called for a ten-day prisoner exchange and the withdrawal of US troops from Afghanistan within the next 14 months.  However, the Afghan government was not a party to the deal, and the next day President Ghani criticized the deal at a press conference for “signing behind closed doors”. He said the Afghan government had “not made any commitment to the release of 5,000 Taliban prisoners” and that such a move was “not the responsibility of the United States, but the authority of the Afghan government”. Ghani also stated that any exchange of prisoners “could not be a precondition for negotiations” but should take place within the framework of negotiations.  On May 2, Afghan authorities released at least 100 Taliban members from a prison in Kabul . This was in response to a peace agreement with the United States. Although the Afghan government had denied the United States its freedom and any authority over the decision, it has now agreed to release 1,500 members of the militant group .

In November, the White House told the Pentagon that it would begin plans to reduce its troop numbers in Afghanistan and Iraq to 2,500 by January 25, just days before President Donald Trump’s departure . 

Withdrawal of American troops 2021

Main article: US troops withdraw from Afghanistan (2021)

In January 2021, the number of US troops in Afghanistan reached 2,500. This was the lowest level of force since 2001.  In March, President Ashraf Ghani confirmed that his government was ready to negotiate peacefully with the Taliban . Addressing lawmakers, he said to discuss new elections and the formation of a government through a democratic process. 

On March 29, the New Zealand Defense Force withdrew its forces from Afghanistan, ending New Zealand’s involvement in the war. 

On April 13, US President Joe Biden announced the withdrawal of all remaining troops from Afghanistan by September 11, 2021.  (date later set for August 31) 

On April 15, Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison announced that the remaining 80 troops stationed in Afghanistan would be withdrawn by September 2021, following the US withdrawal. 

By June 30, both Germany (which had announced its withdrawal plan two months earlier)  and Italy had withdrawn all their troops and equipment from Afghanistan, ending their involvement in the war.  On the same day, the last Polish troops left Afghanistan, ending Polish involvement in the war. About 33,000 Polish soldiers served in Afghanistan during the war, and 44 people were killed in the operation.  On July 2, officials announced that Western forces had left Bagram Air Base without prior notice, handing over control of the base to the Afghan government. [161]

By July 5, the Taliban controlled about two-thirds of Afghanistan, and NATO forces were completing their withdrawal. And there were reports of mass exodus of Afghan Army soldiers. [162]

On July 11, Australian Defense Minister Peter Dutton said his country had ended its involvement in Afghanistan. 

US troops withdraw from Afghanistan (2021)

In April 2021, US President Joe Biden announced the withdrawal of all US troops from Afghanistan by September 2021,  claiming that he trusted the 300,000 Afghans trained to maintain security in the country.  But US-trained Afghan forces easily defeated the Taliban within weeks.  By 16 August, Kabul and much of the country had fallen to the Taliban. They quickly showed reconciliation to the West, granting amnesty to Afghans who assisted Americans in operations against their compatriots, as well as initially allowing foreign nationals to be transferred to the airport to leave the country. The complete evacuation of American forces, most of its citizens and some of its allies, was completed by August 30, 2021, ending the US involvement in the war. However, thousands of American citizens and green card holders were released by the State Department, despite US President Joe Biden’s promises to the American people that American troops would remain until every American left Afghanistan.  Biden is said to have concluded before the US withdrawal that this was an “invincible war” and a situation without a “military solution”. 

On August 29, 2021, 98 countries jointly declared that the Taliban would ensure the safe passage of their country, both Afghan and foreign nationals.

War Crimes

War crimes (serious violations of the laws and customs of war leading to individual criminal responsibility) [170] have been committed by both parties, including the killing of civilians, the bombing of civilian targets, assassinations, the use of torture and the killing of prisoners of war , as well as common crimes. Others include theft, fire and destruction of property.

Taleban

According to Amnesty International, the Taliban are committing war crimes by targeting civilians, including killing teachers, abducting aid workers and setting fire to school buildings. Amnesty International says 756 civilians were killed in bomb blasts in 2006, most of them on the road or carried out by Taliban suicide bombers. 

Northern Alliance

In December 2001, the Lily Plain massacre took place, where between 250 and 3,000 Taliban fighters who had surrendered were shot or strangled in a truck’s metal container while being transported by Northern Alliance forces. Reports show US ground forces at the scene.  Irish documentary Afghan massacre: Death convoy investigates these allegations, claiming that mass graves of thousands of victims have been found by UN investigators  and that the United States has blocked an investigation into the incident. 

NATO and its allies

image copy right : Young Afghan farmer killed on January 15, 2010 by a group of US Army soldiers called 
the Killing Team

In November 2014, Amnesty International accused the Pentagon of hiding evidence of war crimes , torture and extrajudicial killings in Afghanistan. 

On October 3, 2015, a USAF airstrike hit a hospital run by Doctors Without Borders in Kunduz during the Kunduz battle . The airstrike killed 42 people and injured 30 others.  UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Zaid Raad al – Hussein said the airstrike may be a war crime.  Eleven days after the airstrike, an American tank entered the hospital compound. “Their sudden and forced entry into the property damaged property, destroyed any evidence, and caused stress and fear for the MSF team,” said Médecins Sans Frontières officials. 

The use of white phosphorus by human rights organizations has been condemned for cruelty and inhumanity because it causes severe burns. White phosphorus burns were confirmed on the bodies of civilians injured in clashes near Bagram . The United States claims that there are at least 44 cases in which militants have used white phosphorus in weapons or attacks.  In May 2009, the United States confirmed that Western troops in Afghanistan were using white phosphorus to illuminate targets or as an incendiary device to destroy enemy shelters and equipment.  US forces used white phosphorus to screen retreats in the Battle of the Treasure when conventional smoked ammunition was not available.

Verification; How much did the war in Afghanistan cost the United States?

The cost of the war has reportedly been a major factor in US officials’ decision to reduce their forces in 2011. The average cost of sending a single US soldier to Afghanistan is estimated at more than $ 1 million a year.

In March 2019, the US Department of Defense estimated that $ 737.592 billion had been spent in Afghanistan during fiscal year 2001 to fiscal year 2018, at $ 3,714 per taxpayer.  However , Brown University research has found a higher figure of $ 975 billion for fiscal year 2001 to fiscal year 2019. 

For fiscal year 2019, the US Department of Defense requested approximately $ 46.3 billion for Operation FREEDOM’S SENTINEL and related missions. 

In March 2013, Linda Belms, a senior policy teacher at Kennedy Harvard School, estimated that the total cost of the US wars in Afghanistan and Iraq would be at least $ 4 trillion to $ 6 trillion. These two wars were considered a cost due to the simultaneous occurrence and use of a large number of American troops. Overall, the Iraq-Afghanistan war is expected to be the most expensive war in US history. 

The $ 4 trillion to $ 6 trillion includes long-term medical and disability costs for service members, military compensation, and social and economic costs. Veterans benefits costs are expected to increase over the next 40 years. A significant portion of the expected final cost comes from the “impact of the war budget, which is largely financed through borrowing” and the additional costs involved – of the $ 9 trillion US debt since 2001, about $ 2 trillion. Borrowed to finance the Afghanistan-Iraq war. [191]

By 2021, Brown University estimates that the war in Afghanistan has cost $ 2.261 trillion, of which $ 530 billion has been spent on benefits and $ 296 billion on veterans’ care. [192]

image copy right : The number of casualties among Western coalition troops involved in the long- 
term liberation operation from 2001 to 2019. 

Number of killed in Afghanistan

 United States of America : 2,355 * United Kingdom : 456 Canada : 157 * France : 88 Germany : 62 Italy : 53 Poland : 44  Denmark : 43 Australia : 41 Spain : 35 * Georgia : 32 Romania : 26 Netherlands : 25 Turkey : 15 Czech Republic : 14 New Zealand : 10 Norway : 19 Estonia : 9 Hungary : 7 Sweden : 5 Latvia : 4 Slovakia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 : 3 Finland : 2 Jordan : 2 Portugal : 2 South Korea : 2 Albania : 1 Belgium : 1
 
 
 
 
 
 

 Bulgaria : 1 Croatia : 1 Lithuania : 1 Montenegro : 1
 
 
 

Total : 3,502

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4 Things That Make Ranbir Kapoor The Best Boyfriend Ever, According To Alia Bhatt

01/4Alia Bhatt gushes over Ranbir Kapoor Wedding bells are ringing as B-Town’s lovebirds, Alia Bhatt and Ranbir Kapoor are all set to get married today! Fans all across the country are rejoicing as the couple...
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Khamenei’s claim: Saddam was on the verge of arresting IRGC forces during Operation Conquest

During Operation Conquest of Iran, Iran suffered heavy casualties due to its use of the "Human Wave Attacks" strategy. Ali Khamenei, the leader of the Islamic Republic, claimed in a meeting with government officials that...

An attractive feature that will be available in the new Twitter update

Elon Musk plans to relaunch the encryption project of private chats on Twitter, placing this software as a super application next to programs such as WhatsApp and Signal. "Twitter is bringing back end-to-end encryption for...
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The Best Games Of 2022 you should play

We show you the best games of 2022 released so far, updated every month. A new game has been added to the list of the best games of 2022, and it may be one of...
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What Love?

Once upon a time, in the silent streets of the city dwelled thou compassionate and filled with innate love. Real love was welled in every vein of thee flowing and moving through heart to...
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Secretary of State Antony Blinken warns of severe response if a single Russian force...

U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken on Sunday reiterated his warning against a Russian invasion of Ukraine, saying any aggressive Russian interference would be met with a “severe” response. “If a single additional Russian force...

Portugal The city of love The best places to see in Portugal that you...

Portugal is a country with impressive mountains in the north, vast plains in the central regions and the best beaches in Europe in the south. Stone Village, beautiful cities protected by historic palaces and castles,...
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Biden approval rating lowers down by 36 percent in new Quinnipiac polls

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || ).push({}); The American public is overwhelmingly optimistic about Republican gains in the 2021 election, even though the Republican Party won both Houses. Almost half said he...
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PUBG MOBILE Update APRIL 2022

PUBG Mobile Redeem Codes Today 13 April 2022: The game provides many items in order to attract more players. items such as skins, outfits, and more. however, items do not affect the gameplay. To buy items,...
The story of a nurse who deliberately married an executioner! + Photos

A young girl marries a murderer sentenced to death

The story of a nurse who deliberately married an executioner! + Photos Euro international News : Rebecca Short, a 26-year-old dental trainee nurse in Oxfordshire, England, who is interested in documentaries of serial killers, eventually married...

Who is Ivanka Trump : Net Worth, Age, Children & Facts – Biography

Ivanka Trump served as an adviser to her father, former U.S. President Donald Trump. Prior to that, she was a real estate developer, reality star and founder of the Ivanka Trump Collection. Who Is Ivanka...
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Putin’s order to Russian nuclear deterrents: Be prepared!

Following tensions with the West, Putin has ordered Russia's "nuclear deterrent" forces to be on standby. Russia's "nuclear deterrent" forces were put on alert at Putin's behest. On the fourth day of his country's invasion of...

The meeting between the crown prince of Saudi Arabia and Biden with the presence...

Prince Mohammed bin Salman, Crown Prince, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defense of Saudi Arabia met with US President Joe Biden in the presence of a number of officials from the two countries...
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Penis Diseases and Problems

A man must have a healthy penis to function as a healthy person--to remove urine, maintain the right fluid balance, to have sex, and to have a baby. Erectile dysfunction is not the only...

Video Removal of Ronaldo’s image from Old Trafford Stadium

Cristiano Ronaldo's stormy interview against the managers and head coach of Manchester United met with the reaction of the managers of the Old Trafford stadium. In response to his recent controversial interview, the Old Trafford...
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